Oriente dispone de 8,4 millones de hectáreas con vocación forestal

La región oriental de Venezuela concentra 16,5 millones de hectáreas. Bolívar y Monagas dominan las tierras para producir madera. Anzoátegui posee 500 mil hectáreas para cereales.

Sirlene Araujo Díaz

Los estados orientales Anzoátegui, Bolívar, Delta Amacuro, Monagas y Sucre, son los que poseen la mayor vocación forestal del país, con 8,4 millones de hectáreas, lo que representa el 39,7% del total disponible en Venezuela (22 millones de hectáreas) . En total, la región dispone de 16,5 millones de hectáreas aprovechables para la agricultura, de las 52 millones aptas en el territorio. Sólo 1,4 millones son idóneas para uso agrícola, 3,3 para uso mixto agrícola – pecuario, y 3,2 para uso pecuario o ganadero, lo que constituye una opción muy favorable para el desarrollo de pastizales.

Los estudios realizados por Graciano Elizalde, Jesús Viloria y Aníbal Rosales sobre la geografía de suelos de Venezuela, arrojan que de las 22 millones de hectáreas con aptitud forestal, sólo el 10% ( 2,5 millones) tienen potencial productor de madera, las cuales están concentradas, en más de un 80%, en los estados Bolívar y Monagas.

Investigaciones como la de Pedro Brito y Antonio Sánchez, realizadas en la década de los años 70 —cuando se dieron los más importantes estudios de suelos en Venezuela y que aún se mantienen vigentes— permitieron aprovechar el potencial encontrado, a través de la siembra de pino Caribe en la región oriental del país. En la actualidad, CVG Proforca tiene cultivadas unas 400 mil hectáreas de este forestal en Monagas y Anzoátegui.

La zona oriental no cuenta con muchas tierras para el uso agrícola. De las 1,5 millones que tiene, más de un millón es apta para cultivos anuales mecanizados o cereales, como la soya. Anzoátegui abarca 575 mil hectáreas y Bolívar 282 mi hectáreas.

Sucre, Celis y Aguilar, investigadores miembros de la comisión del plan nacional de aprovechamiento de los recursos hídricos para la década de los años 70, explican que “la región nor-oriental cuenta con pocos recursos edafológicos para el desarrollo agrícola, debido a la gran extensión de los sistemas montañosas (serranía del interior, Penínsulas Araya-Paria), baja fertilidad natural (suelos en la formación mesa), problemas de drenaje (planicie de desborde al este de Monagas), y baja disponibilidad de aguas”.

Sin embargo, aclaran que existen áreas que tienen cierto potencial agrícola, siempre y cuando se haga un manejo tecnológico adecuado, dependiendo de los problemas específicos en cada caso, como el valle del río Guarapiche, parte de la planicie aluvial de los ríos Amana, Guanipa y Tigre, y valles en la Península de Paria”.

Recomendamos leer:

Los Llanos cuenta con casi 9 millones de hectáreas aptas para la ganadería

El Occidente del país dispone de 12 millones de hectáreas aptas para la agricultura

Venezuela cuenta con 1,7 millones de hectáreas aptas para la fruticultura

Venezuela posee más de 50 millones de hectáreas con potencial agrícola



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