El ajonjolí, la “semilla milagrosa” en Venezuela

Un fruto tan pequeño ha hecho milagros en el país, haciendo honor a su significado. Pese a las dificultades que está atravesando el agro venezolano, el ajonjolí, o sésamo como se le conoce en el resto del mundo, sigue en pie en las tierras venezolanas.

Sirlene Araujo

“El cultivo del ajonjolí se ha mantenido en el tiempo, a diferencia de otros rubros como el algodón, café, cacao, arroz y otros donde las erradas políticas de los gobiernos de turno han dado al traste con la producción de esos cultivos, las siembras de ajonjolí se mantienen estables en unas 40 mil a 50.000 hectáreas anuales y una producción de 20 mil a 25.000 toneladas al año”, así lo resaltó a Vida Agro Ramón Bolotín, presidente de Productores Agrícolas Independientes (PAI) y director de oleaginosas de Fedeagro.

ajonjolidos-1

Es tal el potencial que posee el país para esta oleaginosa que, aún cuando históricamente los líderes productores mundiales han sido India y China, fue Venezuela, específicamente Turén, estado Portuguesa, la pionera en la mecanización del cultivo hace más de medio siglo y la que logró obtener rendimientos más altos que esos países.

Cultivo de ajonjolí en plena floración.

Cultivo de ajonjolí en plena floración. Foto cortesía de @Bolotinsubero

“El ajonjolí es un rubro emblemático de la agricultura venezolana, se cultiva desde los años 50 y desde entonces se ha desarrollado una tecnología autóctona que es referencia a nivel mundial en cuanto a mecanización del cultivo, sobre todo en las labores de corte y cosecha”, destacó Bolotín.

El productor explicó que recientemente se han realizado en Portuguesa siembras exitosas de ajonjolí bajo el sistema de siembra directa, “es decir sin labrar el suelo, lo que trae no solo beneficios de reducción de costos, sino que también ayuda a conservar los suelos”.

Aquí la cosecha directa de ajonjolí, una nueva modalidad que no requiere que el cultivo se corte verde y se ponga a secar en "parvas" a campo abierto. Foto cortesía de @Bolotinsubero

Aquí la cosecha directa de ajonjolí, una nueva modalidad que no requiere que el cultivo se corte verde y se ponga a secar en “parvas” a campo abierto. Foto cortesía de @Bolotinsubero

Mientras que en el mundo el ajonjolí es cultivado por pequeños productores y en forma manual, a un promedio de unidad de producción entre 2 y 5, Venezuela ha avanzado más en su cultivo a gran escala, pues el promedio de un productor nacional es de 50 hectáreas con un rendimiento promedio de 500 kilos por hectárea, cuando el promedio mundial está en 437 kilos.

Aplicacion de desecante para realizar cosecha directa sobre cultivo de ajonjolí maduro. Foto cortesía de @Bolotinsubero

Aplicación de desecante para realizar cosecha directa sobre cultivo de ajonjolí maduro. Foto cortesía de @Bolotinsubero

Actualmente, el 96% del ajonjolí se exporta a México, EE UU, Japón y Europa, y el restante 4% para consumo nacional. “El consumo nacional es muy poco, en su mayoría para la elaboración de panes y postres. Existe una incipiente producción nacional de aceite puro de ajonjolí que está creciendo continuamente”, destacó Bolotín.

ajonjoli5

Aunque la cantidad producida en el país es pequeña, según los datos de la FAO, Venezuela es el segundo productor en América Latina, luego de Paraguay que cosecha un poco más de 50 mil toneladas anuales.

El ajonjolí, que se comenzó a sembrar en Venezuela a principios de los años cincuenta, llegó a su tope en la década de los 70 cuando se sembraron más de 170.000

Bruno Mazzani, creador de muchas variedades de la semilla todavía cultivadas en el país, reseña en su libro Investigación y Tecnología del Cultivo del Ajonjolí en Venezuela (1999): “(…) La tecnología, especialmente, la cosecha mecanizada, fue y, probablemente, sigue siendo única en el mundo. También, el sistema de producción maíz – ajonjolí y la época de siembra por la que las plantas de la semilla no reciben agua de lluvia ni de riego durante todo su ciclo, contribuyen a esa ‘originalidad’ de la producción venezolana”.

 HISTORIA DEL CULTIVO EN EL PAÍS

Mazzani señala que el ajonjolí se empezó a cultivar en Venezuela a escala familiar y como cultivo hortícola. En la segunda mitad del siglo pasado el cultivo del ajonjolí se volvió comercial en la Península de Paraguaná donde la producción excedía las necesidades de los conuqueros y parte de las cosechas era vendida en los mercados locales, hasta Maracaibo. En esa producción del ajonjolí todas las labores de siembra a cosecha eran realizadas a mano.

Hacia mediados de este siglo la selección de variedades aptas para la cosecha mecánica y simultáneamente la adaptación de máquinas e implementos para ese fin hicieron posible la extensión del cultivo a la región de los Llanos Centro-occidentales, donde se estableció como acompañante y complementario del cultivo del arroz y del maíz.

La mecanización de la siembra y de la cosecha era condición imprescindible para que el cultivo se mantuviera en esa región donde la mano de obra era escasa y costosa.

“La mecanización de la siembra no presentó mayores dificultades. En cambio la mecanización de la cosecha fue un reto que los técnicos asumieron y resolvieron tan eficientemente que las áreas ocupadas por ese cultivo fueron extendiéndose rápidamente. Se puede resumir la evolución de la cosecha mecánica del ajonjolí considerando tres etapas principales”, indica Mazzani en su libro.

El autor describe las tres etapas de la mecanización:

La primera etapa tuvo sus logros en la adaptación y uso de la vieja “segadora – atadora” de cereales para cortar las plantas maduras, y de la “cosechadora combinada” para trillar las plantas después de secadas al sol durante no menos de quince días. Esto representaba todavía una mecanización parcial de la cosecha del ajonjolí. Los haces de plantas tirados al suelo por la “segadora – atadora tenían que ser recogidos y reunidos en “burros” o “parvas” para el secado de las plantas al sol. Después nuevamente se requería trabajo manual para alimentar (es decir tirar las plantas secas dentro de) la combinada para la trilla”.

En la segunda etapa se logró la mecanización de la “alimentación” de la combinada. Un aparato de invención y construcción local pegado lateralmente (sistema Colleoni) o en frente de la combinada (sistema Schultz) y operado por el mismo conductor de la combinada o a través de una célula fotoeléctrica, golpeaba los “burros ” arrojándolos sobre la plataforma. Estos dos sistemas fueron analizados por Dávila (1977), demostrando sus ventajas respecto al sistema tradicional.

Simultáneos con esos experimentos de secado artificial de las plantas se empezaron los estudios de la modificación de la cosechadora para que ésta, además de trillar, cumpliera también la operación de corte de las plantas. Quedaría así eliminado el amarre de las plantas en haces y su levantamiento y parado en los “burros”. Con el diseño y construcción de un cabezal especialmente adaptado a las exigencias de la planta y del cultivo del ajonjolí y que se instalaba en el frente de la “combinada”, se logró reunir en dos operaciones simultaneas el corte de las plantas y su trilla, hasta entonces separadas por no menos de quince días. Quedaba eliminada cualquiera intervención del trabajo manual en la cosecha del ajonjolí. Se había cumplido así la tercera etapa del proceso.


Mazziani concluye en su libro que definitivamente “disponemos de un acervo de conocimientos y experiencias suficiente para mantener y mejorar una producción exitosa de ajonjolí en este país”.

“En una época en la cual se esgrime una y otra vez la palabra ‘competitividad’ como patrón para calificar o descalificar la producción nacional de los cultivos, el ajonjolí presenta suficientes ventajas competitivas como para asegurar la persistencia de su cultivo y de su contribución a la producción agrícola de diferentes regiones”, destacó el autor.

Share

Comentarios

Loading Facebook Comments ...

101 thoughts on “El ajonjolí, la “semilla milagrosa” en Venezuela

  1. I simply want to tell you that I am newbie to blogging and site-building and honestly loved this web blog. Likely I’m planning to bookmark your website . You certainly come with very good articles and reviews. Kudos for sharing your website page.

  2. Thank you for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do a little research on this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more from this post. I am very glad to see such wonderful info being shared freely out there.

  3. Nice post. I was checking constantly this blog and I’m impressed! Very useful info particularly the last part 🙂 I care for such information a lot. I was seeking this particular information for a very long time. Thank you and best of luck.

  4. I will right away grasp your rss feed as I can’t to find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do you have any? Please let me recognize in order that I may subscribe. Thanks.

  5. I would like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this website. I’m hoping the same high-grade website post from you in the upcoming also. In fact your creative writing skills has encouraged me to get my own website now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings fast. Your write up is a great example of it.

  6. hello there and thank you for your information – I have definitely picked up something new from right here. I did however expertise some technical points using this site, since I experienced to reload the web site lots of times previous to I could get it to load properly. I had been wondering if your web host is OK? Not that I am complaining, but slow loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and could damage your high-quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords. Well I am adding this RSS to my email and can look out for much more of your respective fascinating content. Make sure you update this again soon..

  7. I wanted to ask if you considered modifying the layout of your blog? It is really well written; I adore just what you got to speak about. Although perhaps you could a bit more with regards to content and so people may well interact with it better. You have an awful lot of words for just having 1 or 2 graphics. You may have could space against eachother greater? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74A-RD7spNY

  8. you’re truly a excellent webmaster. The website loading velocity is incredible. It sort of feels that you’re doing any distinctive trick. Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you’ve done a wonderful activity on this subject!

  9. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you could do with a few pics to drive the message home a little bit, but other than that, this is fantastic blog. An excellent read. I will certainly be back.

  10. You actually make it appear so easy together with your presentation however I to find this topic to be really one thing that I think I would never understand. It kind of feels too complicated and extremely large for me. I’m taking a look ahead to your next submit, I will attempt to get the grasp of it!

  11. Thanks for another informative blog. The place else may I get that kind of information written in such an ideal means? I have a venture that I am just now operating on, and I have been at the glance out for such information.

  12. Thanks for any other informative blog. Where else may just I get that kind of info written in such an ideal means? I’ve a project that I am simply now operating on, and I’ve been at the look out for such information.

  13. I have been surfing online greater than 3 hours nowadays, yet I by no means discovered any interesting article like yours. It is beautiful price sufficient for me. In my opinion, if all webmasters and bloggers made just right content as you did, the web will probably be a lot more useful than ever before.

  14. I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored material stylish. nonetheless, you command get got an edginess over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come more formerly again as exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this hike.

  15. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to be actually something which I think I would never understand. It seems too complicated and extremely broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post, I’ll try to get the hang of it!

  16. Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It really useful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to give something back and aid others like you helped me.

  17. I like what you guys are up also. Such intelligent work and reporting! Carry on the excellent works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my website 🙂

  18. Usually I don’t read post on blogs, however I wish to say that this write-up very forced me to try and do so! Your writing taste has been surprised me. Thanks, quite great article.

  19. This is very interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I have joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your website in my social networks!

  20. I like what you guys are up too. Such clever work and reporting! Carry on the excellent works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my website 🙂

  21. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation however I in finding this matter to be actually one thing which I think I might by no means understand. It sort of feels too complicated and very vast for me. I am having a look ahead in your subsequent submit, I will try to get the grasp of it!

  22. Wonderful paintings! This is the type of info that are meant to be shared around the web. Disgrace on the seek engines for not positioning this post upper! Come on over and consult with my web site . Thanks =)

  23. I precisely needed to thank you so much once again. I do not know what I might have achieved without the actual ideas provided by you directly on such a topic. It became a terrifying issue in my position, however , encountering the very expert strategy you treated that took me to jump with fulfillment. I’m just thankful for this support and then hope that you recognize what a powerful job you were undertaking training men and women thru your websites. I know that you have never come across all of us.

  24. Thank you a lot for providing individuals with remarkably brilliant opportunity to check tips from this website. It’s always very nice plus packed with a good time for me personally and my office fellow workers to search your website on the least three times weekly to see the new stuff you will have. Of course, I’m just certainly contented concerning the fantastic information served by you. Certain 1 facts in this article are indeed the most impressive I’ve ever had.

  25. I’ve been browsing on-line greater than 3 hours these days, but I by no means discovered any attention-grabbing article like yours. It is pretty value enough for me. In my opinion, if all web owners and bloggers made just right content as you did, the web will likely be a lot more helpful than ever before.

  26. Thank you for any other informative blog. The place else could I am getting that kind of info written in such an ideal approach? I have a venture that I’m simply now working on, and I’ve been at the look out for such information.

  27. My wife and i have been really relieved that Edward managed to carry out his web research through the entire ideas he discovered from your web page. It’s not at all simplistic to simply possibly be giving out concepts which often some people might have been trying to sell. And we figure out we have got the writer to thank for that. Those illustrations you made, the simple blog menu, the friendships your site give support to instill – it’s everything terrific, and it is letting our son in addition to our family know that the theme is entertaining, which is certainly exceptionally important. Thank you for the whole thing!

  28. I have to express some thanks to this writer for bailing me out of this predicament. Because of researching through the online world and seeing suggestions that were not powerful, I thought my entire life was gone. Existing without the strategies to the difficulties you have fixed all through your entire site is a crucial case, and those that might have badly affected my career if I hadn’t come across the blog. Your competence and kindness in playing with every part was valuable. I am not sure what I would’ve done if I hadn’t discovered such a subject like this. I am able to at this time look forward to my future. Thank you very much for the professional and results-oriented guide. I won’t think twice to suggest your blog to anyone who should get assistance about this topic.

  29. Nice read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing a little research on that. And he just bought me lunch since I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch! “Dreams are real while they last. Can we say more of life” by Henry Havelock Ellis.

  30. I would like to point out my gratitude for your kindness in support of individuals that actually need assistance with the situation. Your very own dedication to getting the solution all-around appeared to be particularly insightful and has made most people just like me to arrive at their ambitions. Your entire warm and helpful advice means so much to me and substantially more to my colleagues. Thanks a lot; from each one of us.

  31. hello!,I like your writing so much! share we keep in touch more about your post on AOL? I need an expert on this space to solve my problem. Maybe that’s you! Taking a look ahead to see you.

  32. Thank you so much for providing individuals with remarkably breathtaking opportunity to check tips from this web site. It really is so pleasing and stuffed with amusement for me personally and my office fellow workers to visit your web site particularly thrice every week to learn the latest guidance you have got. And of course, I’m just certainly happy concerning the magnificent tips served by you. Certain 1 facts in this posting are particularly the most suitable I have ever had.

  33. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing some research on that. And he just bought me lunch since I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch! “But O the truth, the truth. The many eyes That look on it The diverse things they see.” by George Meredith.

  34. hey there and thank you for your info – I have definitely picked up anything new from right here. I did however expertise several technical points using this website, as I experienced to reload the web site a lot of times previous to I could get it to load properly. I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and could damage your high quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords. Anyway I’m adding this RSS to my email and could look out for a lot more of your respective exciting content. Make sure you update this again soon..

  35. I’ve been browsing online more than 3 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be much more useful than ever before.

  36. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing some research on that. And he actually bought me lunch as I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch! “For most of history, Anonymous was a woman.” by Virginia Woolf.

  37. It is the best time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I want to suggest you few interesting things or advice. Maybe you can write next articles referring to this article. I wish to read more things about it!

  38. I frequently read through your site content closely. I’m also fascinated by automated forex trading system, maybe you might talk about that from time to time. Take care.

  39. I’ve been surfing online more than three hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all site owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be much more useful than ever before.

  40. Its wonderful as your other posts : D, thankyou for posting . “It takes less time to do things right than to explain why you did it wrong.” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

  41. Wow! This can be one particular of the most useful blogs We’ve ever arrive across on this subject. Actually Fantastic. I’m also an expert in this topic therefore I can understand your hard work.

  42. I wanted to create you the little bit of remark in order to thank you so much the moment again for these exceptional things you’ve discussed above. This is really surprisingly generous of people like you to deliver without restraint all that a few people might have advertised for an electronic book in making some money for themselves, principally considering the fact that you could have done it if you ever considered necessary. Those solutions as well acted as the great way to comprehend other people online have similar dreams just as my own to grasp somewhat more with regards to this problem. I’m certain there are lots of more enjoyable sessions ahead for many who examine your blog.

  43. I’m still learning from you, while I’m trying to achieve my goals. I certainly love reading everything that is posted on your website.Keep the information coming. I loved it!

  44. Wow! This could be one particular of the most beneficial blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject. Basically Magnificent. I am also a specialist in this topic therefore I can understand your effort.

  45. Usually I do not read article on blogs, however I would like to say that this write-up very compelled me to try and do so! Your writing taste has been surprised me. Thanks, quite great article.

  46. You could definitely see your expertise in the paintings you write. The sector hopes for more passionate writers like you who aren’t afraid to say how they believe. At all times go after your heart.

  47. Hi, Neat post. There is a problem together with your website in internet explorer, would check this¡K IE nonetheless is the marketplace leader and a huge section of people will pass over your fantastic writing due to this problem.

  48. Great ¡V I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your site. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs as well as related information ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least. Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything, web site theme . a tones way for your customer to communicate. Nice task..

  49. Hi my family member! I wish to say that this article is awesome, nice written and come with approximately all important infos. I would like to peer extra posts like this .

  50. I like what you guys are up also. Such intelligent work and reporting! Keep up the superb works guys I¡¦ve incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my site 🙂

  51. I’ve been browsing on-line more than three hours as of late, yet I never discovered any fascinating article like yours. It’s pretty price enough for me. Personally, if all site owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet can be a lot more helpful than ever before. “Dignity is not negotiable. Dignity is the honor of the family.” by Vartan Gregorian.

  52. I would like to show my appreciation to this writer just for bailing me out of such a matter. Right after looking out through the the net and coming across thoughts which were not powerful, I figured my entire life was gone. Living devoid of the answers to the difficulties you have solved through your good website is a crucial case, as well as those which may have in a negative way affected my career if I hadn’t discovered the blog. Your actual capability and kindness in taking care of all things was valuable. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I hadn’t come across such a stuff like this. I can at this time look ahead to my future. Thanks very much for this professional and results-oriented guide. I will not hesitate to suggest the website to any individual who needs and wants recommendations on this issue.

  53. I am not sure where you are getting your information, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for excellent information I was looking for this information for my mission.

  54. Hey very nice blog!! Man .. Excellent .. Wonderful .. I’ll bookmark your web site and take the feeds also…I’m satisfied to seek out so many useful info right here in the publish, we need work out more techniques on this regard, thanks for sharing.

  55. I am no longer certain where you’re getting your info, but great topic. I must spend a while studying more or working out more. Thank you for great information I used to be searching for this info for my mission.

  56. You actually make it appear really easy along with your presentation however I in finding this matter to be really one thing that I feel I would never understand. It kind of feels too complex and extremely wide for me. I’m taking a look ahead to your subsequent put up, I will try to get the dangle of it!

  57. I have been surfing online greater than three hours as of late, but I never discovered any interesting article like yours. It¡¦s pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you probably did, the internet will likely be a lot more helpful than ever before.

  58. Thanks for another informative web site. Where else could I am getting that type of information written in such a perfect means? I’ve a venture that I am just now operating on, and I have been on the look out for such info.

  59. Someone necessarily help to make significantly posts I’d state. That is the very first time I frequented your website page and thus far? I amazed with the research you made to make this actual put up amazing. Magnificent activity!

  60. Simply desire to say your article is as astonishing. The clarity in your post is just excellent and i could assume you are an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please carry on the gratifying work.

  61. Magnificent beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your website, how can i subscribe for a blog website? The account aided me a acceptable deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear concept

  62. Good site! I truly love how it is easy on my eyes and the data are well written. I’m wondering how I could be notified whenever a new post has been made. I have subscribed to your feed which must do the trick! Have a great day!

  63. We’re a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community. Your web site provided us with valuable information to work on. You have done a formidable job and our entire community will be grateful to you.

  64. I like what you guys are up too. Such smart work and reporting! Carry on the excellent works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my web site :).

Deja un comentario

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada.