Conoce cómo se cultivan los espárragos en Venezuela

Los espárragos también se cultivan y producen en Venezuela. Aquí les contamos la historia de un emprendedor andino que apuesta por el trabajo en familia en el campo en Timotes. “Ser productor de alimentos  es un compromiso muy importante”, aseguró a Vida Agro.

Milagros Palomares
En las fértiles tierras de Timotes, un merideño  de 23 años sigue los pasos del alemán  Ernst J Dorschlag, quien hace 15 comenzó a sembrar los primeros espárragos en suelo andino. Desde hace ocho años, este joven emprendedor cultiva el rubro de manera orgánica.

 

Los  atractivos vegetales  verdes que cosecha Ricardo Romero miden de 30 a 32 centímetros. Son vendidos frescos a los despachadores en Timotes y luego ellos los distribuyen a las principales ciudades del país como Caracas, Valencia, Barquisimeto y Maracaibo.

Junto con sus padres, tíos, primos y otros familiares, Ricardo (en la segunda foto)  atiende los sembradíos de espárragos en su finca, ubicada en  la localidad de Mesa Cerrada, cerca de Timotes, estado Mérida. Allí  tiene una hectárea en producción, dividida en pequeñas huertas, a una altitud de 2.100 metros  sobre el nivel del mar.

Otra de las fincas donde  cultivan más  espárragos  está ubicada en la comunidad Matos, que pertenece a La Mesa de Esnujaque, estado Trujillo, y  limita con Timotes, municipio Miranda del estado Mérida.

Ante la escasez de fertilizantes, necesarios para nutrir  los suelos,  este productor se ingenió varias  alternativas: “Desde el 2016 realizamos el picado del tamo (follaje del espárrago) y lo incorporamos al suelo, este nos permite abonar, mantener humedad y controlar malezas”.

Romero asegura que no utilizan fungicidas ni pesticidas. Les ha dado excelentes resultados la aplicación de abono orgánico de chivo porque muestra grandes ventajas en el desarrollo de la planta.

“También se han obtenido buenos resultados con el estiércol de  gallinaza,  le aporta nitrógeno a los suelos,  pero sólo en su etapa inicial. El estiércol de chivo tiene los mejores resultados para nosotros. En el momento del periodo de cosecha cada vez que abonamos se obtienen los niveles más altos y con unas características del turión (espárrago) únicas, con buen color, ápice cerrado y buen  peso”, afirma el agrónomo recién  egresado de la Universidad Santiago de Mariño, en Mérida.

En la finca de Mesa Cerrada todos los días los obreros cortan espárragos para la venta. En 2.000 metros de terreno, han obtenido un rendimiento de 450 kilos, con un estimado de tres cosechas al año.

“El mercado de Timotes no tiene un estándar de longitud ni diámetro específico para los espárragos, a pesar de ello manejamos un características propias como productores comprometidos y honestos,  desechamos los espárragos espigados, muy delgados, partidos y torcidos. Nuestra cosecha inicia a las 6:30 o 7:00 de la mañana día de por medio. Cuando la cosecha tiene el pico de producción se llega a cortar a  diario por cinco días, pero esto lo determinarán las temperaturas, horas luz, suelos y riegos”, dice.

“Estamos bendecidos porque nuestras tierras son demasiado fértiles, tenemos un clima muy especial, nos ubicamos a 2.100 metros sobre el nivel del mar con temperaturas entre los 15 y 18 grados, además contamos con nacientes de agua vírgenes que son fundamentales para los riegos de las siembras”, se enorgullece.

Los costos de producción de espárragos son menores a los de cualquier otra hortaliza, sin embargo, “este no es un cultivo como para hacerse rico”, sostiene.  A los gastos del pago de obreros en el campo (2.500 bs en una jornada de 6:30 a 9:00  de la mañana)  hay que agregarle la compra de las ligas, fundamental para armar los paquetes, que cuestan alrededor de 20.000 bolívares la bolsa de un kilo. La jornada de poda del follaje sale en 7.000 bolívares.

“Son utilizados dos números, la 18 y 22. Algunos productores solo manejan  la 12 pero el paquete queda muy suelto. Cuando la cosecha llega al área de empaque lo que se realiza es tomar varios turiones y emparejarlos en el ápice; puede ser uno a uno o dependiendo del embalador se le colocan las dos ligas y luego se encarga otra persona de emparejar el paquete en la parte de abajo y pesarlo de 550 gramos y empacar a la cesta”.

La fórmula del éxito en los cultivos de espárragos de Romero ha sido  la constancia y la disciplina que le  pone a diario con el apoyo de su gente. Su motivación es saber que viene de una familia de agricultores en Timotes que por generaciones se han dedicado a la cría de rebaños de ganado, y han labrado los campos con maíz, trigo, cebada, papas, lechuga, cebolla, fresas y moras.

“Ser productor de alimentos  es un compromiso muy importante. De nosotros depende el trabajo que puedan tener otras personas en la ciudad. Con mi experiencia les digo que sí podemos ser emprendedores, es difícil y costoso, pero no imposible”, reflexiona el merideño.

A la par de los espárragos, Ricardo también atiende su incubadora de gallinas ponedoras y anhela construir un aprisco para la cría de cabras. Pronto concretará este nuevo proyecto. Todos sus sueños los ha cumplido en el campo.

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102 thoughts on “Conoce cómo se cultivan los espárragos en Venezuela

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